Running the Steam Deck’s OS in a virtual machine using QEMU

SteamOS desktop


The Steam Deck is a handheld gaming computer that runs a Linux-based operating system called SteamOS. The machine comes with SteamOS 3 (code name “holo”), which is in turn based on Arch Linux.

Although there is no SteamOS 3 installer for a generic PC (yet), it is very easy to install on a virtual machine using QEMU. This post explains how to do it.

The goal of this VM is not to play games (you can already install Steam on your computer after all) but to use SteamOS in desktop mode. The Gamescope mode (the console-like interface you normally see when you use the machine) requires additional development to make it work with QEMU and will not work with these instructions.

A SteamOS VM can be useful for debugging, development, and generally playing and tinkering with the OS without risking breaking the Steam Deck.

Running the SteamOS desktop in a virtual machine only requires QEMU and the OVMF UEFI firmware and should work in any relatively recent distribution. In this post I’m using QEMU directly, but you can also use virt-manager or some other tool if you prefer, we’re emulating a standard x86_64 machine here.

General concepts

SteamOS is a single-user operating system and it uses an A/B partition scheme, which means that there are two sets of partitions and two copies of the operating system. The root filesystem is read-only and system updates happen on the partition set that is not active. This allows for safer updates, among other things.

There is one single /home partition, shared by both partition sets. It contains the games, user files, and anything that the user wants to install there.

Although the user can trivially become root, make the root filesystem read-write and install or change anything (the pacman package manager is available), this is not recommended because

  • it increases the chances of breaking the OS, and
  • any changes will disappear with the next OS update.

A simple way for the user to install additional software that survives OS updates and doesn’t touch the root filesystem is Flatpak. It comes preinstalled with the OS and is integrated with the KDE Discover app.

Preparing all the necessary files

The first thing that we need is the installer. For that we have to download the Steam Deck recovery image from here:

Once the file has been downloaded, we can uncompress it and we’ll get a raw disk image called steamdeck-recovery-4.img (the number may vary).

Note that the recovery image is already SteamOS (just not the most up-to-date version). If you simply want to have a quick look you can play a bit with it and skip the installation step. In this case I recommend that you extend the image before using it, for example with ‘truncate -s 64G steamdeck-recovery-4.img‘ or, better, create a qcow2 overlay file and leave the original raw image unmodified: ‘qemu-img create -f qcow2 -F raw -b steamdeck-recovery-4.img steamdeck-recovery-extended.qcow2 64G

But here we want to perform the actual installation, so we need a destination image. Let’s create one:

$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 steamos.qcow2 64G

Installing SteamOS

Now that we have all files we can start the virtual machine:

$ qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -smp cores=4 -m 8G \
    -device usb-ehci -device usb-tablet \
    -device intel-hda -device hda-duplex \
    -device VGA,xres=1280,yres=800 \
    -drive if=pflash,format=raw,readonly=on,file=/usr/share/ovmf/OVMF.fd \
    -drive if=virtio,file=steamdeck-recovery-4.img,driver=raw \
    -device nvme,drive=drive0,serial=badbeef \
    -drive if=none,id=drive0,file=steamos.qcow2

Note that we’re emulating an NVMe drive for steamos.qcow2 because that’s what the installer script expects. This is not strictly necessary but it makes things a bit easier. If you don’t want to do that you’ll have to edit ~/tools/ and change DISK and DISK_SUFFIX.

SteamOS installer shortcuts

Once the system has booted we’ll see a KDE Plasma session with a few tools on the desktop. If we select “Reimage Steam Deck” and click “Proceed” on the confirmation dialog then SteamOS will be installed on the destination drive. This process should not take a long time.

Now, once the operation finishes a new confirmation dialog will ask if we want to reboot the Steam Deck, but here we have to choose “Cancel”. We cannot use the new image yet because it would try to boot into the Gamescope session, which won’t work, so we need to change the default desktop session.

SteamOS comes with a helper script that allows us to enter a chroot after automatically mounting all SteamOS partitions, so let’s open a Konsole and make the Plasma session the default one in both partition sets:

$ sudo steamos-chroot --disk /dev/nvme0n1 --partset A
# steamos-readonly disable
# echo '[Autologin]' > /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# echo 'Session=plasma.desktop' >> /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# steamos-readonly enable
# exit

$ sudo steamos-chroot --disk /dev/nvme0n1 --partset B
# steamos-readonly disable
# echo '[Autologin]' > /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# echo 'Session=plasma.desktop' >> /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# steamos-readonly enable
# exit

After this we can shut down the virtual machine. Our new SteamOS drive is ready to be used. We can discard the recovery image now if we want.

Booting SteamOS and first steps

To boot SteamOS we can use a QEMU line similar to the one used during the installation. This time we’re not emulating an NVMe drive because it’s no longer necessary.

$ cp /usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_VARS.fd .
$ qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -smp cores=4 -m 8G \
   -device usb-ehci -device usb-tablet \
   -device intel-hda -device hda-duplex \
   -device VGA,xres=1280,yres=800 \
   -drive if=pflash,format=raw,readonly=on,file=/usr/share/ovmf/OVMF.fd \
   -drive if=pflash,format=raw,file=OVMF_VARS.fd \
   -drive if=virtio,file=steamos.qcow2 \
   -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net0 \
   -netdev user,id=net0,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22

(the last two lines redirect tcp port 2222 to port 22 of the guest to be able to SSH into the VM. If you don’t want to do that you can omit them)

If everything went fine, you should see KDE Plasma again, this time with a desktop icon to launch Steam and another one to “Return to Gaming Mode” (which we should not use because it won’t work). See the screenshot that opens this post.

Congratulations, you’re running SteamOS now. Here are some things that you probably want to do:

  • (optional) Change the keyboard layout in the system settings (the default one is US English)
  • Set the password for the deck user: run ‘passwd‘ on a terminal
  • Enable / start the SSH server: ‘sudo systemctl enable sshd‘ and/or ‘sudo systemctl start sshd‘.
  • SSH into the machine: ‘ssh -p 2222 deck@localhost

Updating the OS to the latest version

The Steam Deck recovery image doesn’t install the most recent version of SteamOS, so now we should probably do a software update.

  • First of all ensure that you’re giving enought RAM to the VM (in my examples I run QEMU with -m 8G). The OS update might fail if you use less.
  • (optional) Change the OS branch if you want to try the beta release: ‘sudo steamos-select-branch beta‘ (or main, if you want the bleeding edge)
  • Check the currently installed version in /etc/os-release (see the BUILD_ID variable)
  • Check the available version: ‘steamos-update check
  • Download and install the software update: ‘steamos-update

Note: if the last step fails after reaching 100% with a post-install handler error then go to Connections in the system settings, rename Wired Connection 1 to something else (anything, the name doesn’t matter), click Apply and run steamos-update again. This works around a bug in the update process. Recent images fix this and this workaround is not necessary with them.

As we did with the recovery image, before rebooting we should ensure that the new update boots into the Plasma session, otherwise it won’t work:

$ sudo steamos-chroot --partset other
# steamos-readonly disable
# echo '[Autologin]' > /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# echo 'Session=plasma.desktop' >> /etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf
# steamos-readonly enable
# exit

After this we can restart the system.

If everything went fine we should be running the latest SteamOS release. Enjoy!

Reporting bugs

SteamOS is under active development. If you find problems or want to request improvements please go to the SteamOS community tracker.

Edit 06 Jul 2022: Small fixes, mention how to install the OS without using NVMe.

18 thoughts on “Running the Steam Deck’s OS in a virtual machine using QEMU

  1. Waby38

    Hello , thanks for your post. Is there a minumum CPU requierement ? (like SSE4.1 or AVX2)
    My (old) laptop don’t support that, and except these log on serial, nothing append on main screen…. (Installing SteamOS)
    BdsDxe: failed to load Boot0002 "UEFI QEMU NVMe Ctrl badbeef 1" from PciRoot(0x0)/Pci(0x6,0x0)/NVMe(0x1,00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00): Not Found
    BdsDxe: loading Boot0003 "UEFI Misc Device" from PciRoot(0x0)/Pci(0x7,0x0)
    BdsDxe: starting Boot0003 "UEFI Misc Device" from PciRoot(0x0)/Pci(0x7,0x0)

    1. berto Post author

      Those are normal messages. You should be able to boot the installer with just this:

      $ qemu-system-x86_64 -enable-kvm -m 4G -drive if=virtio,file=steamdeck-recovery-4.img,driver=raw -bios OVMF.fd

      After the messages that you pasted the screen should turn black and some seconds later you should see the Steam Deck logo.

      Now, you mention SSE4.1 which was introduced in 2007 … does your computer have enough RAM for this? What versions of QEMU and OVMF are you using?

      1. Waby38

        I’m using an up-to-date Fedora 36

        and my laptop is an i5-2540M with 12Go (include support for sse4_1/2 but no AVX….)

        Here log with latest cmd line

        I will try on a more recent HW !

        1. Waby38

          …sorry, cannot edit….

          UEFI Interactive Shell v2.2
          EDK II
          UEFI v2.70 (EDK II, 0x00010000)
          Mapping table
          FS0: Alias(s):HD1b:;BLK2:
          FS1: Alias(s):HD1c:;BLK3:
          BLK0: Alias(s):
          BLK1: Alias(s):
          BLK4: Alias(s):
          BLK5: Alias(s):
          BLK6: Alias(s):

          Press ESC in 1 seconds to skip startup.nsh or any other key to continue.

          1. Waby38

            Just check with your link, extracted in my rootfs, but not better….
            Exactly same log like previous…. I will check on another recent machine, and keep your in touch. Maybe “Qemu” from Fedora make wrong…. Which distro are you using?

          2. Waby38

            As promised, some feedback:
            Fedora 36: old & recent HW, Still not able to have something working… (w/o other OVMF….)
            Ubuntu 20.04: it just work as expected !

            My previous post which go into UEFI shell was due to corrupted image…

  2. thiago


    Thank you so much for this tutorial!

    I have managed to make it work perfectly by running qemu-system-x86_64 from the command-line. Unfortunately could not create a VM under virt-manager GUI that works. It looks like there is no way to create a VM by providing qemu cmdline args as it has to be configured by an xml file.

    Maybe it’s a long shot but I thought I should ask; do you happen to know the virsh or XML configurations which are equivalent to the qemu cmdline args you provided? I am having trouble with the network port forward (which is not really required) but specially with the video settings.

    Thank you.
    Kindest regards.

    1. berto Post author

      Sorry I’m not too familiar with virt-manager, but you just need to emulate a normal x86_64 PC, the only special thing is that it has to boot using UEFI.

  3. ameansone

    thank you for this toturial

    i noticed that in this toturial we have to edit `/etc/sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf` for every update, cause every update will erase rootfs. but after installation, i found that `/etc` is mounted as a overlayfs, which consists of a lowerdir in root mount the rootfs and upperdir in `/var` mount another partition which will not be erased during update. so if we put the `sddm.conf.d/zz-steamos-autologin.conf` file to each upperdir `/var/lib/overlays/etc/upper/` of two partsets A and B instead of `/etc`, we don’t have to care about this file anymore.

    i tested it once, and it survive the update, i didn’t do more test, the update is a suffer on my network.
    i think this may be helpful so leave the comment here.
    and thanks for this toturial again.

  4. Chris

    Super helpful, thanks for posting these instructions! Works well on Windows, on a Ryzen 5600X, replacing “-enable-kvm” with “-accel whpx,kernel-irqchip=off” (just make sure to enable virtualization in bios, and in “turn windows features on or off” select “Windows Hypervisor Platform”

  5. Pingback: Adding software to the Steam Deck with systemd-sysext | The world won't listen

  6. Steam Punk

    Hi, thanks for posting this. Following your instructions (except using qcow2 raw on zfs) I get steam-os installed but when it boots it stops at steamdeck login: (rotated 90 degrees) and stops. Any ideas on what I’m doing wrong?

  7. stevenlafl

    Here’s the libvirt xml for virt-manager. I can’t do code blocks here. It already has the boot order correct. You just need to create the qcow2 file as described or with virt-manager. To work with virt-manager (at least on Ubuntu or distro with AppArmor) you’ll also need to add this to /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/libvirt-qemu:

    /var/lib/libvirt/images/steamos.qcow2 rwk,

    then systemctl restart apparmor.service

    Here’s the XML file:








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