Discovering Chrome’s pre-defined
Custom Handlers

In a previous post I described some architectural changes I’ve applied in Chrome to move the Custom Handlers logic into a new component. One of the advantages of this new architecture is an easier extensibility for embedders and less friction with the //chrome layer.

Igalia and Protocol Labs has been collaborating for some years already to improve the multi-protocol capabilities in the main browsers; most of our work has been done in Chrome, but we have interesting contributions in Firefox and of course we have plans to increase or activity in Safari.

As I said in the mentioned post, one of the long-term goals that Protocol Labs has with this work is to improve the integration of the IPFS protocol in the main browsers. On this regard, its undeniable that the Brave browser is the one leading this effort, providing a native implementation of the IPFS protocol that can work with both, a local IPFS node and the HTTPS gateway. For the rest of the browsers, Protocol Labs would like to at least implement the HTTPS gateway support, as an intermediate step and to increase the adoption and use of the protocol.

This is where the Chrome’s pre-defined custom handlers feature could provide us a possible approach. This feature allows Chrome to register handlers for specific schemes at compile-time. The ChromeOS embedders use this mechanism to register handlers for the mailto and webcal schemes, to redirect the HTTP requests to and sites respectively.

The idea would be that Chrome could use the same approach to register pre-defined handlers for the IPFS scheme, redirecting the IPFS request to the HTTPS gateways.

In order to understand better how this feature would work, I\’ll explain first how Chrome deals with the needs of the different embedders regarding the schemes.

The SchemesRegistry

The SchemeRegistry data structure is used to declare the schemes registered in the browser and assign some specific properties to different subsets of such group of schemes.

The data structure defines different lists to provide these specific features to the schemes; the main and more basic list is perhaps the standard schemes, which is defined as follows:

A standard-format scheme adheres to what RFC 3986 calls “generic URI syntax” (

There are other lists to lend specific properties to a well-defined set of schemes:

// Schemes that are allowed for referrers.
std::vector<std::string> referrer_schemes = {
// Schemes that do not trigger mixed content warning.
std::vector<std::string> secure_schemes = {
  kHttpsScheme, kAboutScheme, kDataScheme, 
  kQuicTransportScheme, kWssScheme,

The following class diagram shows how the SchemeRegistry data structure is defined, with some duplication to avoid layering violations, and its relationship with the Content Public API, used by the Chrome embedders to define its own behavior for some schemes

It’s worth mentioning that this relationship between the //url, //content and //blink layers shows some margin to be improved, as it was noted down by Dimitry Gozman (one of the Content Public API owners) in one of the reviews of the patches I’ve been working on. I hope we could propose some improvements on this code, as part of the goals that Igalia and Protocol Labs will define for 2023.

Additional schemes for Embedders

As it was commented on the preliminary discussions I had as part of the analysis of the initial refactoring work described in the first section, Chrome already provides a way for embedders to define new schemes and even modifying the behavior of the ones already registered. This is done via the Content Public API, as usual.

The Chrome’s Content Layer offers a Public API that embedders can implement to define its own behavior for certain features.

One of these abstract features is the addition of new schemes to be handled internally. The ContentClient interface has a method called AddAdditionalSchemes precisely for this purpose. On the other hand, the ContentBrowserClient interface provides the HasCustomSchemeHandler and IsHandledURL methods to allow embedders implement their specific behavior to handler such schemes.

The following class diagram shows how embedders implements the Content Client interfaces to provide specific behavior to some schemes:

I’ve applied a refactoring to allow defining pre-defined handlers via the SchemeRegistry. This is some excerpt of such refactoring:

// Schemes with a predefined default custom handler.
std::map<std::string, std::string=""> predefined_handler_schemes;
void AddPredefinedHandlerScheme(const char* new_scheme, const char* handler) {
      new_scheme, handler,      
const std::map<std::string, std::string="">
GetPredefinedHandlerSchemes() {
  return GetSchemeRegistry().predefined_handler_schemes;

Finally, embedders would just need to implement the ChromeContentClient::AddAdditionalSchemes interface to register a scheme and its associated handler.

For instance, in order to install in Android a predefined handler for the IPFS protocol, we would just need to add in the AwContentClient::AddAdditionalSchemes function the following logic:

      "ipfs", "");
      "ipns", "");


The pre-defined handlers allow us to introduce in the browser a custom behavior for specific schemes.

Unlike the registerProtocolHandler method, we could bypass some if the restrictions imposed by the HTML API, given that in the context of an embedder browser its possible to have more control on the navigation use cases.

The custom handlers, either using the pre-defined handlers approach or the registerProtocolHandler method, is not the ideal way of introducing multi-protocol support in the browser. I personally consider it a promising intermediate step, but a more solid solution must be designed for these use cases of the browser.